CBAD2103 – System Analysis and Design

Question 1

A. Context Diagram

Entity for IT Learn Student Registration System

1. Student

2. Lecturer

3. Program

4. Module

Process for IT Learn Student Registration System

  1. Register Program
  2. Select Module
  3. Print Student List
  4. Update Student Mark

Context Diagram

B. Level 0-DFD

C. Level 1-DFD

D. Physical DFD Diagram

Question 2

System development methodology is a comprehensive plan to be followed, which covers all the necessary activities in the system development life cycle. There are 4 famous methodologies used in system development life cycle (SDLC). The 4 are waterfall model, rapid application development (RAD), joint application development (JAD), the spiral model, synch and stabilize, build and fix concept. Although there is a lot of method used in system development, the above 6 concepts are among the famous models used in developing a system nowadays. However, for this assignment it will focus on 2 types of SDLC models which are the waterfall model and joint application development (JAD). These 2 models are among SDLC models that I favour to use in developing a system.

The waterfall model also known as the traditional SDLC. This is because this model is considered as the classic approach to the SDLC. Its describes the development stage or method in linear, sequential and by phases mode. Example for waterfall model is as below:

The Waterfall Model

Each phase has a goal or objective to be achieved before it moves to another phase. Once a phase of development is completed, the development proceeds to the next phase and there is no turning back. Its similar to a waterfall on the cliff of a steep mountain concept whereby once the water has flowed over the edge of the cliff and has begun its journey down side of the mountain, it cannot turn up ward back.

The advantage of this waterfall development concept is it allows the development team to have a proper control on the development of a project. Control mechanism such as in costing, timeline and managerial control are some of example of control mechanism that can be used in this waterfall development concept. Usually each phase will have its specific timeline and budget to be used. If the timeline or budget over-utilized, the team may reduce the timeline or budget scheduled on other phases of the project. The development phases moves from feasibility, analysis, design, testing, implantation and maintaining phases.

However, this waterfall concept also has its own disadvantages. The disadvantage is that this concept does not allow reversion of revision of the phases that already gone through. For example, if the project already reached testing stage, it is very difficult to go back to analysis stage to change something that was not well-planned or analyzed during the analysis stage.

The second SDLC concept that I have been my alternative choice apart from the waterfall concept is the Joint Application Development (JAD) concept. This JAD concept was introduced by Chuck Morris and Tony Crawford. Both of them were from IBM and introduced this concept in the late 1970s. In early 1980s this concept became commercialized since it is widely used during those days.

JAD concept is different methodology from the waterfall concept. This JAD concept involves the end user or the client to design and development an application. The development of the application also involves not only the client but also it involves other parties such as vendors and system developers.

The advantage of JAD concept is its give greater client satisfaction and involvement. This is because its allow involvement from the client in defining its requirements together with its intended design of a system. The client will involve throughout the development process beginning from planning until the implementation stage. Its also thought to lead to faster development and accomplishment of the project.

The disadvantage of this concept is does cost the client such a large amount of money for certain project. This is because since it involves end-user or client from the beginning of the project some of the requirements are thought not can be developed by the system developer. Its also involves a lot testing by the end-user and its will cost the organization some expenses since every changes made to the system will involves the system developer.

The different between the above 2 concepts is JAD allow end-user or client involvement in designing and developing the system. This different allow the organization to development an application or software that are suit with the organization own requirement. JAD also allows the end-user to troubleshoot the application by its own since the end-user knows the problem arise from the usage of the application or system. JAD also allow the user to defined in-depth user requirements for a system. This is because the client will be involves starts from the beginning of the project.

Compared to the waterfall concept, the client only involves during the feasibility, analysis and testing stage. The development of the system or application will not involve the end-user. A specific vendor or system developer will be appointed to develop the system based on the requirements gather during earlier stage of the waterfall concept. This concept does not allow in-depth gathering of user requirements since this waterfall concept does not allow reversion or revision of the phases that have been gone through. This will not contribute an in-depth user requirement especially during analysis stage since the new system will only be developed based on requirement gathered without conducting a testing for the new system.


1. Kamsuriah Ahmad et. al (2007). CBAD 2103 – System Analysis and Design. Kuala Lumpur. MeteorDoc Sdn. Bhd.

2. Chester Myrvin et. al (2002). Basic Information System Analysis and Design. London. McGraw-Hill Publisher.

3. Kenneth E. Kendall et. al (2002). Systems Analysis and Design. New Jersey. Prentice Hall.



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