CBMT 2103 – introduction to multimedia

Question 1 A

Multimedia is a combination of several of media that creates the presentation or the application interactive. It combines the use of various types of media such as text, graphics, audio, video and animation in order to create an interactive presentation or application through electronic medium such as computer. There are 3 main words that explained what multimedia is. The 3 main words are the combination, interactive and electronic medium.

The integration of the 3 main words/elements defines clearly what is multimedia. Multimedia combines the usage of text, animation in creating an interactive presentation. However, the presentation must be done in electronic medium such as in computer so that the interactivity of the presentation can be done effectively.

According to Wikipedia, multimedia defined as a media and content that utilizes a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which only utilize traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, and interactivity content forms.

Today, an interactive presentation can be easily done through the usage of software such as Microsoft Power Point. A user can combines the usage of animation on the text easily to create a simple interactive presentation slides.

Question 1 B

Today, the use of multimedia not limited for commercial usage as now multimedia presentation are widely used for the learning usage. Companies such as Hasbro and Leap Frog are now rapidly creating interactive software and games in order to gain market share in edutainment industry.

Now, education in Malaysia is also moving toward interactive learning system. The introduction of smart school as one of the flagship of MSC is one of the proof that the government is now utilising the usage of multimedia in education industry. Nowadays, most of classroom in Malaysia are equipped with projector that will be used by the teacher as the medium for teaching for the students. However, this method of teaching are still not widely used in all classroom as some teachers and student still prefer the use of text books in day-to-day class activity.

The use of multimedia technology can give good influence in future schooling system. It can use widely in setting up an edutainment software for the students especially in giving homework for the students. The school may choose to have their own website so that homework can be downloaded or can be done online. It can make the students more excited as they are now doing the homework differently as compared to the old days. However, not all the students have the computer facility. Thus the school or Education Ministry must provide such facility such as computer lab to facilitate the ease for the students.

The use of multimedia technology is also give value add for the students. The students not only learned theirs subject but also will gain some knowledge in computing.

Not all aspects of schooling can use the multimedia technology as some aspect of schooling still require the traditional way. Aspect in learning of arts subjects and physical classroom session still require the traditional way as both aspect still require face-to-face interaction between the teacher and the students. The other aspect of school that cannot be replaced with multimedia technology is the examination. The examination session still requires the tradition way. This is because by using multimedia technology in conduction examination may lead to other problems. However, multimedia technology still can be used in examination session as additional feature in examination such as it can be used in informing the students on the venue, date and time of the exam.

Question 1 C

Nowadays, online shopping is very popular and widely used by almost all internet users. Online shopping website such as lelong.com.my, mudah.com.my, and e-bay are some of online shopping websites that are widely accessed by internet users. There are some advantages of online shopping. Some of the advantages are:

1. Ease & peace of shopping

- Online shopping offer peace and ease shopping mood to the user. This is because the user can shop at anytime they like without going to the actual shopping mall. User is also can browse through the product catalogue at their leisure time as the product catalogue available through the online shopping website.

2. Able to compare product price & feature

- Most of online shop provides the facility /tool for the user to compare every product price & price that they offered. With this tool, the customer can make better buying decision with less effort made because they can compare more than 1 product at one time.

3. Access to almost all products

- The online shopping provides almost all products in the internet. The user can browse through all products that are sold in the online shopping as the internet provides gateway not only to local online shopping mall but also other countries online shopping mall. The consumer may also purchase overseas products that are not sold in Malaysia with online shopping.

4. Convenient

- Online shopping offer the user/consumer the convenience in finding the product, time for shopping and free from buying pressure as the shopping was made at the consumer/user’s end. This is because the user/consumer will do the shopping at their place without having to go to the shopping mall.

Although online shopping offers several advantages to the user, it also does have some shortage/disadvantages. Some of the advantages of online shopping are:

1. Too many choice of products

- As the online shopping offers variety types of products, it also offers to the consumer many choices of different brands of the same product. It may invites confusion to the consumer in making decision on which brand to be bought as all the products may have similar features and characteristics.

2. Privacy

- There is no guarantee that the customer private details will be kept secretly by the company whose the customer had a transaction earlier. Private details such as e-mails and phone numbers are usually given to third party by the company as a part of their business arrangement. However, this issue has been address in some countries whereby the privacy of individual data is protected by a specific act for instance in USA, the consumer is protected by Privacy Act.

3. ‘Feel’ of the product

- Although online shopping offer convenience at consumer’s end, however the consumer does not have the opportunity to feel and to try the product before the purchase was made. This is because the consumer totally relying on the product catalogue displayed in online shopping mall compared to the traditional way of shopping that permits the consumer to try the product before decision to buy is made.

4. Security

- Cyber security against cyber attacks such as phishing, virus, trojan, spam and etc are some of cyber attacks are known today. As an online shopping provider, threat such as phishing and IP spoofing are the major concerns. This is because online shopping involves not only online catalogue browsing and online order but it also involves electronic financial transaction. Encryption and firewall are the examples of most famous method to be used in minimize cyber attacks threats in online shopping.

Although online shopping is a fast growing trend nowadays, however it does not give big impact to the traditional brick & mortar type of shopping malls. Consumers are still opting to go to the shopping mall because by shopping at the mall it gives the consumers the opportunity to try the product before they choose to buy it.

Another reason why online shopping does not give big impact to the traditional shopping mall is because online shopping does imposed extra delivery charges to the product purchased by the consumer. The extra charge is for the delivery on the product bought by the consumer.

Online shopping is an alternative for shopping to the consumer. Thus, traditional shopping mall may still be the main preference for most of the consumer to buy what they want.

Question 2 A

Web 2.0 is the latest version of web development tool that is widely used nowadays. Websites such as Facebook, MySpace and Blogger.com are some of the websites that use the Web 2.0 platform. Before the Web 2.0 phenomenon advent, the World Wide Web is known as Web 1.0 where the information is one way traffic. This is because the information in the website is provided by the provider to the end user.

The Web 2.0 was introduced with its aim to enhance communication, creativity, secure information sharing and functionality of the web.

With the emergence of Web 2.0, now more people creating their own blog instead of personal websites. File sharing nowadays is done by using Torrent, and internet users are now searching information through Wikipedia instead of online encyclopaedias.

During Web 1.0 days, personal websites were wide created by the users. It contains mainly static pages which are hosted on free services such as Geocities and Bravehost. Nowadays, internet users are actively creates new blogs that allowing reader to comment on posts posted which was not available during Web 1.0.

In my opinion, the Web 2.0 has brought significant impact to the internet user recently. This is because Web 2.0 has made the internet more interactive and eases to use. This is supported by the growing numbers of blogs created everyday. In wordpress.com itself, the number of blogs created daily is more that 10,000 blogs.

During the Web 1.0 era, the personal websites are mostly developed by those who are computer literates. But with the emergence of Web 2.0, most internet users can have their personal blogs ready within a minute. File sharing is also easy using Web 2.0 platform.

Social networking websites such Facebook, Bebo and MySpace are now is amongst most visited websites by internet user daily as these websites are widely used by today’s internet users.

Question 2 B

Websites such as Facebook, MySpace and YouTube are among the websites that are most visited by internet users daily. All these websites are widely used by the internet users nowadays with most of every user of the internet might have an account with one of these websites.

These websites is known as social networking site which allow the user to interact or to share files such as photos with other registered members. However, these websites have its strength and limitations. Even the new elected US President Barack Obama have his own Facebook profile.

Facebook

Features/Strength

1. Free registration
2. Can be accessed through mobile version via m.facebook.com
3. Easy navigation
4. Free from spam messages as the user page can be commented only by theirs approved friends
5. Can share videos, movie clips, pictures and blogcast from external websites
6. Open source applications where members can develop additional applications to be installed by users
7. Powerful search function whereby it can be filter according the user needs ie by the member’s network ring
8. Customised features – user can disable some feature that they do not want
9. Have its own Blackberry version
10. Have various language that can be used by the user
11. Have the capability of recommending new friends. It was auto-populated by matching the user location, interest or workplace
12. Notifications of action taken/done by registered friends

Limitations

1. A user is limited to only 5000 friends
2. Too many unwanted advertisement appear to the user
3. Privacy issue – the new Term of Service allow Facebook to use any information posted by the user although him/herself have closed their account.

MySpace

Features/Strength

1. Free registration
2. Can share videos, movie clips, pictures and blogcast from external websites
3. Open source applications where members can develop additional applications to be installed by users
4. Have various language that can be used by the user
5. Have the capability of recommending new friends. It was auto-populated by matching the user location, interest or workplace

Limitations
1. Do not have mobile version
2. Too slow and too heavy to surf because MySpace allow the user to add music as the background in their profile
3. Spam messages – spamming activities are heavy in MySpace websites

YouTube

Features/Strength

1. Free registration
2. Can upload/share videos and movie clips.
3. Integrate with the user’s Yahoo account

Limitations

1. Do not have mobile version
2. Too slow and too heavy to surf as it is a web-streaming website
3. Only allow video sharing
4. Video uploaded have the timeline limits – not more than 30 minutes
5. Privacy issue – guest may just copy the video link and paste it to their website without the owner consent
6. Piracy issue – user may upload content which is not legally posses

In my opinion, although there are some limitations to these websites, it will still continue to grow. This is because improvement will be made by the provider in order to gain market share in the internet. As the number of internet users is growing, these websites will still continue to grow each day.

References

1. Prof. Dr. Mansor Fadzil et. al. (2009). Open University Malaysia: CBMT2103 – Introduction to Multimedia Technology. Kuala Lumpur. Meteor Doc. Sdn Bhd.
2. Todd Stauffer (2008). How to do everything with your Web 2.0 blog. USA. McGraw-Hill
3. Stephen J. Misovich et. al. (2003). An introduction to interactive multimedia. London. Allyn and Bacon
4. http://www.wikipedia.org
5. http://www.facebook.com
6. http://www.youtube.com
7. http://www.myspace.com
8. http://www.webopedia.com

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Intro to networking – CBCN4103

A network that will connect several computers lab will have several network devices in order to ensure the connectivity in the network working. The devices that will be in the network are:
1. Nodes
– Nodes are the PCs that are connected to the network. This is because the nodes will have the software and programs that will ensure the network is working. The nodes will allow the user to perform certain task ie printing via the network.
2. Hub
– Hub is a component which acts as a convergence point of a Network allowing the transfer of data packets. In its simplest form a hub works by duplicating the data packets received via one Port and making it available to all ports, therefore allowing data sharing between all devices connected to the hub.
Hub will receive the data packets from the switch before its transferred to the destination ie. the nodes. It also allows data sharing among the nodes as all nodes and devices are connected to the same hub.
3. Network Interface Card (NIC)
– Network interface card is a device that attached to the nodes that allow the network cable to be connected from the hub to the nodes. It also known as network card, network adapter, network interface controller (NIC)or LAN adapter. It was designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. It will be attached to the nodes motherboard.
4. Switch
– Switch is a device that channels incoming data from any of multiple input ports to the specific output port that will take the data toward its intended destination. In the above sketch, switch will transfer the packet data to the intended hub before the packet is distributed to the dedicated nodes. Although in the above sketch, hub were also been use, switch is still in use as switch capable of inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of each packet, and forwarding them appropriately ie to the respective hubs. In Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, a switch performs the layer 2 or Data-Link function.
5. Network cable
Network cable is very important in a network unless the network setup was made wireless. There are many types of network cables. The most used type of network cable is the unshielded twisted pair and the coaxial. The network cable will transport the packet data received or sent by the nodes. Today, the fibre-optic type of network cable is quite popular. The criterion to choose the cable is based on the network topology used in the network.
6. Modem
Modem is a combination of modulate and demodulate. Modem will modulate the analogue data received and encode it to digital so that the computer/nodes can read the data received. It enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines as the information stored in the computer is in digital form. The transmission of data via cable lines is in analogue waves. The modem will convert the data receives from the computer before it allow the data to pass through the cable lines. The modem also will convert the data received in analogue waves before the data receives by the computer.
7. Server
The server act as the ‘gatekeeper’ to the network. It will determine the protocol to be used by the nodes in order to connect to the internet. In the server itself, firewall will be setup and anti virus programs will be installed so that all data packets send and receive will be free from any virus that could harm the network.

Question 1 B
Network management system (NMS) is a combination of software, hardware and procedure that manage, monitor and administer a network. Network administrator will take the take charge of the NMS of the organization. NMS give wide coverage of the network including:
1. Reliability – NMS will ensure that the network is available to use for the user. By adopting NMS approach, every hardware and software malfunctions can be respond and detected.
2. Security – NMS will protect the network from unauthorised users. Only authorised/registered user is allowed to use the network. Registered user maybe supplied with dedicated password or dedicated proxy server number in order to use the network.
3. Performance – NMS will ensure the traffic flow of the network run smoothly. It will eliminate all the bottlenecks in the network by setting up priority of data flow.
4. Bandwidth management – By adopting NMS, it can help controlling the communications (traffic, packets) on a network link, to avoid filling the link to capacity or overfilling the link, which would result in network congestion and poor performance.
5.
Examples of NMS are:
1. OpenNMS – it is an open source network monitoring platform. It was mainly written on JAVA and operating systems such as Windows, Linux and Sun solaris does support this NMS. This OpenNMS focuses on three areas which are the service polling, data collection, and event management.
2. Just For Fun NMS (JFFNMS) – it was designed to monitor a simple network management protocol (SNMP). Basically SNMP is a set of protocols that manage a set of complex network. JFFNMS was written on PHP which can be run on LINUX and Windows. This JFFNMS focuses on:
1. Status Map, gives you a quick look of your network
2. Events Console – one dashboard that will shows all kinds of events in one screen
3. Performance Graphs – display of the network performance interactively
4. Database Backend

Question 1 C
The OSI model defines all the methods and protocols that are needed to connect one computer to another one via a network. Each layer have different functions and are relies on the functions of the lower level layer. The function of each layers are listed below:
1. Physical – it define the properties of the physical medium used to make the network connection. It conveys the bits stream on the physical hardware. Network Interface Card, hub and cable are the example part of physical layer.
2. Data Link – it responsible to transfer the data between the end of a physical link. It will ensure a reliable data stream by including error detection, framing and flow control. The data element carried by the data link layer called as FRAMES. Example of data link layer are frame layer, ATM and token ring.
3. Network – Network layer defines how data packets travel from one point to another point via a network. It responsible to route and to switch the data to dedicated destination in order to establish transparent delivery of data. This network layer also known as packet layer. Internet Protocol (IP) and Internet Protocol Exchange (IPX) are the example of protocols under the network layer.
4. Transport – It manages the flow of error-free information from one point to another point. It will segment the data receives from session layer into smaller packet if necessary and pass it to the network layer. It will also ensure that all the data packets are encoded and sequence properly. It will also identify each and every computer in the networks uniquely. TCP and UDP are some examples of transport layer.
5. Session – this layer refers to the connection between nodes to a network server. Communication between computers is established, maintained and terminated by the session layer. Session layer will coordinate the communication process between nodes. It will also enforce the rules of the dialog for example half or full duplex communication. Telnet and AppleTalk are the example.
6. Presentation – it will determine the formats of data, translation , encryption and data compression. It will decode the data receive from the sender and encode to the receiver so that the message can be understood. Example are JPEG,GIF, XLS.
7. Application – this layer will control the operating system and the application on how to interact with the network. It consist the protocols that define specific user-oriented application such as email and file transfer. Example of this layer is the Telnet, FTP and Windows Client.
The TCP/IP layer is different with the OSI layer as the TCP/IP only consists of four layers. Each layers function is a listed below.

1. Network Access – it connect a host to the network hardware. It places the data into frames. This layer performs all the functions of the first two layers in OSI.
2. Internet – also known as internetworking. It is the core of Internet Protocol (IP). It responsible is to transfer the data/message from the source to the dedicated destination. The destination may be set by the IP address or the subnet address.
3. Transport – It can be define by 2 protocols which are the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). It provides data flow for the application layer. It will transfer the data to the application layer.
4. Application – it is similar to the OSI application layer. It acts as the communication interface for the user to use the network. Example e-mail, file transfer, telnet & ftp.
Both OSI and TCP/IP used the layer approach in both model. This is because by using layers, the data sent through the network is much secure. This was due to that the data is encrypted at each stage so that the reliability of the data is secured.
The designing of the network is much easier by using the layer approach. This is because layer approach enables each layer to be completely independent from each other. This will allow the developer to change the layer’s functions easily without affecting other layers.

Question 1 D
Wireless LAN is one of the technologies that allow or enable devices such handphones or PDA to connect with other devices wirelessly. Although it is a wireless connection, it still require a physical medium that will transmit the signals to pass. However, instead using cables such as twister pair or fibre optic, wireless LAN (WLAN) use infrared light or radio frequencies. The usage of radio frequencies is much popular now as it covers longer range and bigger bandwidth.
The other technology that allows wireless connection between devices is the Bluetooth technology enables devices such as handphones or PDAs to connect with other mobile devices in a limited area. It is a wireless connection. Both devices that want to be connected must have the Bluetooth feature in each device. Bluetooth connections only connect devices that have the Bluetooth capability. Nowadays also all mobile phone and laptops are equipped with Bluetooth technology.
Bluetooth technology relies on two things, a radio frequency technology and the protocol software enabling it to transmit data to other devices. Bluetooth-capable devices can transmit data to other devices not within the line of sight of the user.
The Bluetooth technology was invented by Ericsson somewhere in 1990’s. The Bluetooth technology uses the radio frequency of 2.45 GHz and can connects all the devices in and transmit the information within 33 feet radius.

Question 2 A
i. Subnet is a short form of subnetwork. It is a process to break a large network to several sub-network. It modifies a single IP network to two or more logically visible sub-sections. Subnetting usually used when a network number needs to be distributed across multiple LAN segments.
IPv4 is internet protocol version 4. It was the 4th revised version of development of internet protocol. IPv4 address be divided into 5 classes namely class A, B, C, D & E. However, this assignment will cover only class A, B, and C.
Class A Address: If the bit is 0 to 0, the address will begin with a decimal point ranging from 0 – 127. Valid host IP address will be range from 1.0.0.1 -126.255.255.254. It has 8 number of bits in the network address. Example IP no of class A address is 10.10.9.201. Class A usually use for very large network. The first octet of this class is always 0. Eg 115 = 01110011
Class B Address: If the first two bits are 10, the address will begin with a decimal point ranging from 128 – 191. Valid host IP address will be range from 128.1.0.1 – 191.255.255.254. It has 8 number of bits in the network address. Example IP no of class B address is 155.100.9.201. Class A usually use for medium-sized network. It will have the first bit value of 1 and second bit value of 0 in the first octet. Eg 145 = 10010001
Class C Address: If the first two bits are 110, the address will begin with a decimal point ranging from 192 – 223. Valid host IP address will be range from 192.1.0.1 – 223.255.255.254. It has 8 number of bits in the network address. Example IP no of class C address is 155.100.9.201. Class C usually use for small to medium-sized network. It will have the first bit value of 1 and second bit value of 1 and the third bit value of 0 in the first octet. Eg 195 = 11000011

ii. Default subnet mask = 255.255.255.0
broadcast address= 192.168.1.255
if 6 host per subnet:
2 power of x => 6 , therefore 2 power of 3 = 8, which is greater then 6 hosts.

Mean 3 bits from right bits is for host, 0000 0111

When 3 bits is for host, remain of 5 bits left is for subnet.
Which is 1111 1000

To find how many subnet in the network;
1111 1000, so 2 power of 5(bits) = 32 subnets

To find how many host per subnet ;
2 power of 3 (bits) = 8 hosts
valid host 8 – 2 = 6 hosts

New subnet mask = 255.255.255.248
Network address = 192.168.1.0

Therefore 32 subnets, each with 6 hosts

To find range 1111 1111 – 1111 1000 = 0000 0111 or 256 – 248 = 8

network address valid host broadcast address
192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 – 192.168.1.6 192.168.1.7
192.168.1.8 192.168.1.9 – 192.168.1.14 192.168.1.15
192.168.1.16 192.168.1.17 – 192.168.1.22 192.168.1.23
192.168.1.24 192.168.1.25 – 192.168.1.30 192.168.1.31

until

192.168.1.248 192.168.1.249 – 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255

Question 2 B

i. The operating systems that were used in the network are Windows and Mac. The best protocol to be used is TCP/IP since most all operating system supports TCP/IP protocol. TCP/IP protocol is also a versatile protocol that supports global connectivity without regard to operating system.

ii. Router is the equipment that can connect different protocols is a network. Router is a device that carries the data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks. The router operated in layer 3 of OSI Model which is the network layer. Network layer defines how data packets travel from one point to another point via a network. It responsible to route and to switch the data to dedicated destination in order to establish transparent delivery of data. This network layer also known as packet layer. Internet Protocol (IP) and Internet Protocol Exchange (IPX) are the example of protocols under the network layer.

References

1. Prof. Dr. Mansor Fadzil et. al. (2009). Open University Malaysia: CBCN4103 – Introduction to Networking. Kuala Lumpur. Meteor Doc. Sdn Bhd.
2. Michael AG & William MH (2002). Computer Communications & Networking Technologies.USA. Brooks/Cole
3. Bruce a. Hallberg (2003). Networking: A Beginner’s Guide 3rd Edition. Osborne. McGraw-Hill
4. http://www.webopedia.com
5. William AS (2002). Understanding Data Communications & Network 2nd Edition. New York. Thomson Publishing.
6. http://www.wikipedia.org

http://www.protocols.com

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CBOP3203 Object Oriented Programming

tugasan ini telah dibuat pada semester september 2008 dan telah dihantar oleh penulis kepada tutor. harap gunakan ia sebagai rujukan dan panduan dan bukan utk ditiru/plagiat.tq

Question 1

Coding

import java.util.*;

import java.io.*;

class Loan2 {

public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {

}

// Constant for the number of months in a year

private final int MONTHS_IN_YEAR = 12;

// The amount of the loan

private double loanAmount;

//The monthly interest rate

private double monthlyInterestRate;

// The number of monthly payments

private int numberOfPayments;

// Constructor

public Loan2(double amount, double rate, int period)

{

setAmount(amount);

setRate (rate );

setPeriod(period);

}

//Returns the loan amount.

public double getAmount( )

{

return loanAmount;

}

//Returns the loan period in the number of years.

public int getPeriod( )

{

return numberOfPayments / MONTHS_IN_YEAR;

}

//Returns the annual interest rate.

public double getRate( )

{

return monthlyInterestRate * 100.0 * MONTHS_IN_YEAR;

}

//Returns the monthly payment

public double getMonthlyPayment( )

{

double monthlyPayment;

monthlyPayment = (loanAmount * monthlyInterestRate)/(1 – Math.pow(1/(1 + monthlyInterestRate),numberOfPayments ) );

return monthlyPayment;

}

//Returns the total payment

public double getTotalPayment( )

{

double totalPayment;

totalPayment = getMonthlyPayment( ) * numberOfPayments;

return totalPayment;

}

//Sets the loan amount of this loan.

public void setAmount(double amount)

{

loanAmount = amount;

}

//Sets the interest rate of this loan.

public void setRate(double annualRate)

{

monthlyInterestRate = annualRate / 100.0 / MONTHS_IN_YEAR;

}

//Sets the loan period of this loan.

public void setPeriod(int periodInYears)

{

numberOfPayments = periodInYears * MONTHS_IN_YEAR;

}

}
Question 1 B

Java Coding

import java.util.*;

import java.io.*;

public class gas2

{

public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException

{

// to set the variable attribute

int pollutant_no;

float miles;

float odometer;

Pembaca read;

read = new Pembaca();

// to prompt selection menu

{

System.out.println (“1. Carbon monoxide”);

System.out.println (“2. Hydrocarbons”);

System.out.println (“3. Nitrogen oxides”);

System.out.println (“4. Nonmethane hydrocarbons”);

//to get input from user

System.out.print (“\nEnter pollutant number: “);

pollutant_no=read.bacaInt ();

//to get input from user

System.out.print (“\nEnter number of grams emitted per mile: “);

miles=read.bacaFloat ();

//to get input from user

System.out.print (“\nEnter odometer reading (round up to greater number-(in miles): “);

odometer=read.bacaFloat ();

// to check the value given by the user

if (pollutant_no == 1 && odometer <= 50000)

System.out.println (“\nEmission exceed permitted level of 3.4grams/mile”);

else if (pollutant_no == 1 && odometer >= 50000)

System.out.println (“\nEmission exceed permitted level of 4.2grams/mile”);

else if (pollutant_no == 2 && odometer <= 50000)

System.out.println (“\nEmission exceed permitted level of 0.31grams/mile”);

else if (pollutant_no == 2 && odometer >= 50000)

System.out.println (“\nEmission exceed permitted level of 0.39grams/mile”);

else if (pollutant_no == 3 && odometer <= 50000)

System.out.println (“\nEmission exceed permitted level of 0.4grams/mile”);

else if (pollutant_no == 3 && odometer >= 50000)

System.out.println (“\nEmission exceed permitted level of 0.5grams/mile”);

else if (pollutant_no == 4 && odometer <= 50000)

System.out.println (“\nEmission exceed permitted level of 0.25grams/mile”);

else if (pollutant_no == 4 && odometer >= 50000)

System.out.println (“\nEmission exceed permitted level of 0.31grams/mile”);

}

}

}

Print screen


Question 2 A

Coding

import javax.swing.*;

class Gamehilo{

//to set maximum try

private final int MAX_NO = 6;

//to set smallest secret number

private final int NO_PALING_KECIL = 1;

// to set biggest secret number

private final int NO_PALING_BESAR= 100;

//computer generated number

private int nomborRahsia;

// constructor – constructor name must be the same with class name

public Gamehilo( ) {

}

// main method

public static void main (String[] args) {

Gamehilo hiLo = new Gamehilo( );

hiLo.start();

}

// to call other private method

public void start ( ) {

int answer;

describeRules();

answer = prompt(“Anda ingin bermain Permainan Hi-Lo?”);

while (answer == JOptionPane.YES_OPTION) {

generatenomborRahsia( );

playGame();

answer = prompt(“Nak Main Lagi??”);

}

}

private void describeRules( ) {

System.out.println(“Inside describeRules”);

}

// to generate random number from 1 to 100

private void generatenomborRahsia( ) {

double X = Math.random();

nomborRahsia = (int) Math.floor(X*100) + 1;

System.out.println(“Secret Number: ” + nomborRahsia);

}

// to get the next guess number from user

private int getNextGuess( ) {

String inputStr;

int input;

while (true) {

inputStr = JOptionPane.showInputDialog(null,”Next Guess”);

input = Integer.parseInt(inputStr);

if (NO_PALING_KECIL <= input && input <= NO_PALING_BESAR) {

return input;

}

// error message for wrong input from user

JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, “Input Salah: ” +

“Nombor mesti ” + NO_PALING_KECIL +

“dan ” + NO_PALING_BESAR);

}

}

// play the game

private void playGame( ) {

int guessCount = 0;

int guess;

do {

guess = getNextGuess();

guessCount++;

// check the guessed number

if (guess < nomborRahsia) {

JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, “Tekaan anda rendah”);

} else if (guess > nomborRahsia) {

JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, “Tekaan anda tinggi”);

}

} while ( guessCount < MAX_NO &&

guess != nomborRahsia );

// output appropriate message

if ( guess == nomborRahsia ) {

JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, “Anda Berjaya Di Dalam “

+ guessCount + ” percubaan.Terima Kasih”);

} else {

JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, “Anda Salah. Nombor sebenar ialah “

+ nomborRahsia);

}

}

//prompt yes-no menu

private int prompt(String question) {

int reply;

reply = JOptionPane.showConfirmDialog(null,

question,

“Confirmation”,

JOptionPane.YES_NO_OPTION);

return reply;

}

}
Question 2B

During developing the java code for the games, several problems were encountered. Some of these problems and difficulties were because the codes need to be well organized and structured in order to ensure that the program can be run by the user.

Some of the problems are:

1. To generate random numbers as the nomborRahsia

- I found this difficulty as the secret number need to set randomly by the computer. However, based on some examples given in few website, to generate random number some of these program used math.random operation. Therefore, to generate random number this math.random operation need to be used. However, the program written need to used javax.swing coding to enable math.random operation. This nomborRahsia is the correct number if the user can guess it right.

2. To determine which file library to be used

- Since the program using some simple GUI to interact with user, at the earlier stage of writing the program, I’ve used the java.io library. However, by using the java.io library my program failed to compile and execute. The error was “cannot find symbol variable JOptionPane”. However, this problem was solved by using the javax.swing library. The javax.swing library enables the GUI to be used in the java program.

3. To decide whether to use text based application or frame java programs

- The other problem I faced while developing the program was in deciding whether to use the text based application of frame java program. The text based application approach will give the output similar to the question 1(b) screen where the screen will be similar to command prompt screen. The hilo game program however need the user to interact easily with the program. I’ve decided to have a simple pop-up dialog box that will enable user to interact with the program.

It is quite difficult to know what method need to be used in order to have a simple pop-up dialog box for user to key in the inputs. I’ve been searching in the internet to find out what method to use. Most of the coding found was using the JOptionPane method to allow simple pop up dialog box to interact with the user. So in this program, I’ve opted to use the JoptionPane in order to allow the use of pop-up dialog box interaction with the user.

4. Writing coding in JOptionPane

- Since I’ve decided to use the JOptionPane for this program in order to have pop-up dialog box and it was never been used before, the other problem that I faced was to write the coding using the JOptionPane class. Some simple coding was initially failed to compile. This problem happened to almost coding that I am using the JOptionPane. The most difficult problem was to make the “Anda ingin bermain Permainan Hi-Lo? pop-up window. Initially the pop-up windon Yes button was not functioning.

I managed to make the button function works by taking some example in the internet with similar purpose of menu pop-up menu functions.

5. To replace Yes and No with Ya atau Tidak

- I’ve been trying to change the pop-up window feature for selection of answer Yes or No to Bahasa Melayu Ya atau Tidak. However, I still couldn’t change it to Bahasa Melayu. I’ve searched in the internet, the feature actually cannot be change to any language since I used JOptionPane.YES_OPTION.


References

  1. Dato’ Dr. Zaiton Osman et. al. (2004). Open University Malaysia: Learning Skills for Open Distance Learners. Kuala Lumpur. Utusan Publications and Distributors Sdn. Bhd

  1. Barry Burd. (2007). Java for Dummies 4th Edition. New Jersey. Wiley Publishing Inc.

  1. Stuart Reges & Marty Stepp. (2008). Building Java Programs – A Back to Basics Approach. Boston. Pearson Education Inc.

  1. http://www.javabeginner.com

  1. Kathryn E. Sanders & Andries van Dam (2006). Object-Oriented Programming in Java-A Graphical Approach. Boston. Pearson Education Inc.

  1. Rogers Cadenhead. (2000). Sams: Teach Yourself Java 2 in 24 hours Indiana. Sam Publishing.

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BBUN2103 Business Law

tugasan ini telah di buat pada semester september 2008.

jadikan ia sebagai rujukan dan bukan utk ditiru/plagiat, tq


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Question A

Section 2 of Age Majority Act 1971 specifies that all males and females citizen of Malaysia that have attained the age of 18 shall be of the age of majority.

“Subject to section 4, the minority of all males and females shall cease and determine within Malaysia at the age of eighteen years and every such male and female attaining that age shall be of the age of majority” – Section 2 of Age Majority Act 1971

Since Johnny enter the installment contract with SEA Corporation for the purchasing of the washing machine at the age of 16, the contract is void and not valid. Section 11 of the CA 1950(CA) have specifically states that only 3 groups of persons capable of entering into a contract. The 3 groups are:

  1. be of the age of majority (Age of Majority 1971)
  2. be sound of mind (section 12 of CA)
  3. be not disqualified or lost of capacity

As for this case, the contract was made while Johnny was at the age of 16, the contract agreement deemed as void. In Leha Jusoh vs Awang Johari case, the land sell contract which was made by a minor was deemed void as it early as it was made (void ab initio). Therefore, the court have decided under section 66 of CA, ordered that the payment for the land to be returned to the infant.

Johnny has no obligation to the contract that he made with SEA Corporation. However, if SEA Corporation went to the court, the decision made may required that the said washing machine to returned to SEA Corporation.


Question B

Based on the Hire – Purchase Act 1967 (HPA), the owner/seller of the goods sold have the right to repossess the goods. SEA Corporation as the seller/owner of the washing have the right to reclaim the washing machine sold to Johnny. This is due to the contract made was void and invalid. However, under HPA, some procedures need to be followed in order to repossess the said goods.

Under HPA, the owner has the rights to repossess the goods by following several procedures. Section 16(1) of HPA specifically provides the situation on when repossession can take place.

Subject to this section, an owner shall not exercise any power of taking possession of goods comprised in a hire-purchase agreement arising out of any breach of the agreement relating to the payment of instalments unless there had been two successive defaults of payments or a default in respect of the last payment and he has served on the hirer a notice, in writing, in the form set out in the Fourth Schedule and the period fixed by the notice has expired, which shall not be less than twenty-one days after the service of the notice.- section 16(1) HPA

As Johnny failed to make any payment after 3 months, SEA Corporation has the right to repossess the goods sold to him. Section 16 of HPA requires the owner to serves the hirer a notice before the repossession take place. The notice expiry shall not be less than 21 days after the service of the notice.

SEA Corporation is also required to send a notice within 21 days of the repossession to all guarantors if there are any that involved in the contract. Acknowledgment receipt of document must be sent to Johnny when SEA Corporation takes the possession of goods.

However in this case, SEA Corporation may get the court order to skip the procedures in Section 16 of HPA as the contract made earlier can be deemed as void as Johnny was considered as an infant as he still below the age of the majority.


Question C

Although the washing machine has been sold to Raihan one week earlier, Raihan still have the rights to claim against SEA Corporation. This consistent with section 16 of Sales of Goods Act 1957(SGA) that states:

Implied condition as to quality or fitness.

(1) Subject to this Act and of any other law for the time being in force, there is no implied warranty or condition as to the quality or fitness for any particular purpose of goods supplied under a contract of sale, except as follows -

(a) Where the buyer, expressly or by implication makes known to the seller the particular purpose for which the goods are required, so as to show that the buyer relies on the seller’s skill or judgment, and the goods are of a description which it is in the course of the seller’s business to supply (whether he is the manufacturer or producer or not) there is an implied condition that the goods shall be reasonably fit for such purpose:

Provided that, in the case of a contract for the sale of a specified article under its patent or other trade name there is no implied condition as to its fitness for any particular purpose.

(b) Where goods are bought by description from a seller who deals in goods of that description (whether he is the manufacturer or producer or not) there is an implied condition that the goods shall be of merchantable quality:

Provided that if the buyer has examined the goods, there shall be no implied condition as regards defects which such examined ought to have revealed.

(2) An implied warranty or condition as to quality or fitness for a particular purpose may be annexed by the usage of trade.

(3) An express warranty or condition does not negative a warranty or condition implied by this Act unless inconsistent therewith.

The situation faced by Raihan similar in Deutz Far East (Pte) Ltd vs Pacific Navigation Co Ltf (1990) case. The defendant claimed that the part supplied were defective and have caused great damage to the engine. As the washing machine sold to Raihan has caused damages to his clothes, Raihan has the right to claim against SEA Corporation.

Since the purpose of buying the washing machine is to wash clothes, Raihan does not need to inform SEA Corporation the purpose of the purchase. Although the purpose of the purchase is to wash clothes, it is clear that Raihan had relied to the seller which is SEA Corporation to sell/provide to him a washing machine that should be of merchantable quality and will not cause any damages to his clothes. Therefore, Raihan can claim against SEA Corporation under SGA.




Question D

Although Michael have signed the employment contract that includes the special clause that prohibited Michael to compete, employed or self-employed anywhere within Kuala Lumpur for a period of five years, the clause is considered void at the earlier stage. This is because under section 28 of CA states that:

Section 28 of CA

Agreement in restraint of trade void.

Every agreement by which anyone is restrained from exercising a lawful profession, trade or business of any kind, is to that extent void.

Although SEA Corporation may sought an injunction to prohibit him from violating the terms in his employment, it is likely the court will dismissed the injunction. Based on Polygram Records Sdn Bhd vs The Search, the court have declared that the clause prohibit the defendant from making any recording after the expiry of their contract was void from the very beginning.

In Wrigglesworth vs Wilson Anthony, the court have also that the clause restraining the defendant practicising his profession was void regardless the distance and place.

Therefore I would advice Michael not to afraid with SEA Corporation’s action that they may seek injunction prohibiting him to work with MMH Company. From the previous court decision, it is likely that the injunction maybe dismissed by the Court.


Question E

According to wikipedia is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order, whereby a party is required to do or interact with in certain ways all right, or to refrain from doing, certain acts. Injunction in Malaysia falls under section 50 and section 51 of Special Relief Act (SRA).

Section 50 of SRA states:

Preventive relief how granted.

Preventive relief is granted at the discretion of the court by injunction, temporary or perpetual.

There are 3 types of injunction under section 51 of SRA which are:

1. Perpetual Injunction (under section 51(2) and 52 of SRA)

- it is a continuous type of injunction. It can only be granted by the decree made at the hearing and upon the merits of the suit. The defendant maybe imposed the perpetual injunction to prevent him from breaching an obligation that exists in favor of other parties. Section 52 (3) of SRA specifically named the following cases that the court may grant perpetual injunction. The cases are:

(a) where the defendant is trustee of the property for the plaintiff;

(b) where there exists no standard for ascertaining the actual damage caused, or likely to be caused, by the invasion;

(c) where the invasion is such that pecuniary compensation would not afford adequate relief;

(d) where it is probable that pecuniary compensation cannot be got for the invasion; and

(e) where the injunction is necessary to prevent a multiplicity of judicial proceedings.

2. Temporary Injunction (section 51 (1) of SRA)

- it is an injunction that are to continue to be in place until a specified time or until further order of the court. It can be granted at any period of a suit and it is regulated by the law relating to civil procedure.

Temporary injunctions are such as are to continue until a specified time, or until the further order of the court. They may be granted at any period of a suit, and are regulated by the law relating to civil procedure.

3. Mandatory Injunction (section 53 of SRA)

- Mandatory injunction is to prevent breach of an obligation. It can be obtain by the court order. The court may in its discretion grant an injunction to prevent the breach complained of, and also to compel performance of the requisite acts. For example A is a contractor who is responsible to build a building in C’s land. However, during the construction, A have built some part of the building in B’s land. Therefore, B seeks injuction of stop work order to A since the construction has entered B’s land without its permission.


References

  1. http://www.lawnet.com.my
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org

3. Prof. Dr. Mansor Fadzil et. al (2008). Open University Malaysia: BBUN2103: Business Law. Kuala Lumpur. Meteor Doc Sdn Bhd.

4. International Law Book Services: Contracts Act 1950 (Act 136), Contracts (Amendment) Act 1976 (A329) & Government Contracts Act 1949 (Act 120). Kuala Lumpur. Syarikat Pencetakan Ihsan Sdn Bhd.

5. Syed Ahmad Alsagoff (2003): Principles of the Law Contract in Malaysia-Second Edition. Singapore. Reed Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd.

6. Wu Min Aun (1994): Legal Aspects of Sale of Goods. Kuala Lumpur. Longman Malaysia Sdn Bhd.

  1. Saudah Sulaiman (2001). Pengenalan Undang-Undang Kontrak & Agensi. Kuala Lumpur. Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka

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Accounting Information System

Cash Receipt Workflow


Sales workflow


Question 1 B.

Identify the potential internal control weakness in the client’s procedure.

There are several potential weaknesses identified in the client’s procedure. The potential weaknesses are:

1. Separation of duties.

- The task for collecting and receiving payment is residing at two separate people. For the cash sales payment, the payment can be made straight to the cashier while payment via cheque and sale credit sales, the payment are made through the sales clerk. The task should be done to one person only as by centralising the collection of payment can be reconciled and tracked easily.

2. Credit limit check

- Currently, credit limit check for credit sale was done by the cashier after receiving the sales invoice for the sales clerk. The credit limit check should be done by the sales clerk before he/she issue a sales invoice to the cashier. This can save the buying process time since the checking are done at 1st stage of the purchasing been made.

3. Proper authorization to approve credit limit check

- Based on the flowchart the approval for credit limit check will be approved by the cashier. It is recommended that Platinum Sdn Bhd to have the credit limit check approval to be made by higher authority. The account department supervisor cum credit manager can be the approver for any credit sale. This can mitigate the risk of misuse of power.

4. Duplication of task

- As in cash receipt workflow, we can see that the task of reviewing remittance advices and cheque are made by both sales department supervisor and account department supervisor. This task can be done only by the account department supervisor. This is because the account department supervisor will review all the cheques for payment of past due account while the sale supervisor only review it without having any added value to the reviewing function. This can shorten the process and can avoid misunderstanding on reviewing both documents.


Question 2(a)

There are few weaknesses identified in the workflow activities. The weaknesses are:

1. Separation of task

- The task between bookkeeper 1 and bookkeeper 2 should not be separated. Both task can be group together in one staff. For example task of the bookkeeper 2 can be merged and done by bookkeeper 1. By merging 2 task that conducted by 2 separate staff into 1 staff, it can increase the company productivity.

2. No proper documentation

- This weakness is found under the warehouse clerk workflow. The clerk should prepare a daily of weekly report of item shipped to the customer. This can help the company to monitor movement of its product that are available in the warehouse. As the current workflow did not have any preparation of stock report, it is recommended that the warehouse clerk to prepare at a weekly basis report.

3. No proper control over cash receipt and stock

- In the current workflow, there is no reconciliation activities were made by any staff towards the sales and collection. This may lead to theft of cash and inventory. Reconciliation should be made against sales and weekly cash report prepared by designated staff to minimize the risk of improper conduct by the staff. However, the reconciliation should be made by someone who did not relate with the workflow.

4. Credit limit check

- Currently, credit limit check for credit sale was done bookkeeper 1 after receiving the sales order for the sales clerk. The credit limit check should be done by the sales clerk before they issue a sales order confirmation to the cashier. This can save the buying process time since the checking are done at 1st stage of the purchasing been made.

5. Billing errors

- In the warehouse clerk workflow, it is noticed that there is no verification been made before the shipment of the product. This may lead to pricing mistakes and billing customer for items not ship that may cause loss to the company due to deficiency during the shipment of goods. It is advisable that the verification of order should be made before the warehouse clerk sends the items for shipment. This verification should be made by other staff and not the warehouse clerk him/herself.


Question 2(b)

1. Approval of bad debt write-offs and the reconciliation of the accounts payable subsidiary ledger and the general ledger control account

- Approval of bad debt write-offs and the reconciliation of the accounts payable subsidiary ledger and the general ledger control account should not be separated. This is because the both ledgers are linked together. The write-offs of the bad debt usually done in account payable before the write-offs posted into the general ledger. If this function is separated, the accuracy of accounting data is not accurate. This is due to the account payable were updated according but it the general ledger the bad debt still exist. So for approval of bad debt write-offs, both ledgers should not be separated since both ledger have different roles and its related to each other.

2. Distribution of payroll cheque to employees and approval of employee time cards.

- Both functions should be separated. This is because if the both functions are not separated, it will lead to misuse of authority. For example, if the both functions are done by one officer, the officer may misuse his authority to approve the amount of payroll cheque which is different from the approved employee time card. By separating these functions, the risk of misuse of authorize can be minimized.

3. Posting of amounts from both the cash receipts journal and the cash disbursements journal to the general ledger.

- Both tasks should be separated from each other. This is because both different since one is to post the cash received and the other is to post expenses incurred. However, reconciliation should be done for both accounts to check whether the company’s financial situation is in strong position. This also will help the company monitor the financial situation so that it can minimize the company risk due to mismanagement of company fund.

4. Writing cheque to vendors and posting to the cash accounts.

- This task is very vulnerable to misuse of authority. Therefore, both tasks should be separated. This is because if the tasks were not separated, the person in-charge of both tasks may have the access to post wrong figure on the payment made. He/she may issue a cheque beyond the actual amount posted in to the cash accounts.

5. Recording cash receipts in the journal and preparing the bank reconciliation.

- Both functions should not be separated. This due to both function is relate to each other and usually reconciliation is done by the same person who recorded the cash receipt. If the tasks were separated, it may take time for the person to perform the bank reconciliation. This is because the source document for reconciliation is kept other person.


References

1. Prof. Dr. Mansor Fadzil et. al (2008). Open University Malaysia: CBFS 4203: Accounting Information System.. Kuala Lumpur. Meteor Doc Sdn Bhd.

2. Kenneth C & Jane P. Laudon (2006). Ninth Edition: Management Information Systems – Managing The Digital Firm. New Jersey, USA. Pearson Education Inc.

3. Marshall B. Romney & Paul John Steinbar (2003). Ninth Edition: Accounting Information System. New Jersey,USA. Prentice Hall.

4. Frederick L Jones & Dasaratha V Rama (2003). Accounting Information System – A Business Process Approach. Ohio, USA. Thomson Learning Inc.

5. George H Bodnar & William S. Hopwood (2004). Accounting Information System – Ninth Edition. New Jersey,USA. Prentice Hall.

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E-Commerce CBEC 1103

Question 1

Electronic commerce or e-commerce (EC) is the on-line exchange of goofs, services and money within firms, between firms and their customer. According to Kamlesh K Bajaj (2005), e-commerce refers to the paperless exchange of business information using electronic data interchange (EDI), e-mail, electronic fund transfer, world wide web and other network-based technologies.

E-commerce not only automates the manual processes and paper transactions but it also helps the company to move to a fully electronic environment and change the current way of doing business.

There several advantages offered by e-commerce that attracts lots of organization to use e-commerce as their business platform. These advantages makes the e-commerce seems to be more practical way in doing business in today’s world. Some of the advantages are:

1. Easy access to global market

- E-commerce allows the company to reach their potential market in any part of the world. This is because the company does not need to setup a brick-mortar outlet in specific area to reach their customers. With e-commerce technologies nowadays, the company only need to setup a web-base online store and provide some product information in order to reach their potential market in other countries.

For example, Liverpool Football Club Online Store was developed by Liverpool Football Club to reach their soccer fans around the world. The fans are not required to go to Liverpool Football Club Store located in England just to buy the team jersey. They can now purchase the club merchandize by visiting the club online shop at http://store.liverpoolfc.tv/ and made the purchasing. The purchased item will be delivered to their door step.

2. Lower cost of doing business

- Compared to a brick-mortar type of business, e-commerce business is more cost effective. This is because to setup an e-commerce business it does not require physical type of building in promoting the company’s products. The company just need to purchase web-hosting and setup their own company’s website. Today, the process of setting up online is even easier than before. E-commerce provider such as lelong.com.my is now offer pre-designed online store to interested parties with minimal amount of fee charged to them.

The party interested does not need to be an IT literacy as the setup for online store is very easy. E-commerce also does not require a lot of staff to work with the company. This is because the online store only needs at least 1 staff to update the company’s catalogue in the website. Compared to brick-mortar type of business, a lot of staff are required to be hired since the company needs the staff to manned the shop.

3. Easy and fast updating of product catalogue

- With e-commerce, the process of updating the company’s product catalogue is easy and fast compared to the traditional type of business. This is because the catalogue is posted to the company’s website and the catalogue is no longer printed. The customer may download the catalogue for the company website. In traditional way of doing business, the product catalogue need to be reprinted each time there are new products offered by the company. With online catalogue offered by e-commerce, the company just need to update the catalogue and update it via the company’s website.

4. Better customer service

- E-commerce offers better and quicker customer service. This is because e-commerce provides several ways of customer service that can be used by the customer. E-mail, telephone call, frequent asked questions (FAQs) and online feedback are several ways of customer service method that can be used in e-commerce. The customer may find the FAQs posted in the company’s website as one way of online customer service. Some problem faced by the customer can be solved by reading the FAQs.

Although e-commerce provides competitive advantage for the company over its competitors, there are several ethical issues that need to be aware by the company in conducting an e-commerce business. Some of the e-commerce ethical issues are:

1. Privacy

- There is no guarantee that the customer private details will be kept secretly by the company whose the customer had a transaction earlier. Private details such as e-mails and phone numbers are usually given to third party by the company as a part of their business arrangement. However, this issue has been address in some countries whereby the privacy of individual data is protected by a specific act for instance in USA, the consumer is protected by Privact Act.

2. Security

- Cyber security against cyber attacks such as phishing, virus, trojan, spam and etc are some of cyber attacks are known today. As an e-commerce provider, threat such as phishing and IP spoofing are the major concerns. This is because e-commerce involves not only online catalogue browsing and online order but it also involves electronic financial transaction. Encryption and firewall are the examples of most famous method to be used in minimize cyber attacks threats in e-commerce.

3. Intellectual property

- Rights to intellectual property are easy to violate on the Internet, resulting in billions of dollars of losses to the owners of the rights. This is because certain individual or company can easily copied another person or company product and post it to their website. Right to intellectual property are hotly debated nowadays. Although some mechanise have been implement in order to protect intellectual property, the violation to it is still widely happen especially in e-commerce. As the internet is the gateway for all of information stored around the world, the effort to protect the intellectual property is still a long journey to be solved.

Among other issues related to intellectual property are the trademarks, patent and copyrights. As e-commerce allows free way in doing business, some companies may take the advantage by breaching the intellectual property by copy others business model or product without the origin permission or consent.

4. Website Content

- The content of the company’s website also is one of ethical issues in e-commerce nowadays. In designing the website content, the company’s must consider some issues such the sensitivity of the content, view perception and the targeted market segment. As e-commerce business can be reach by almost everybody in the world, the content of the website must be design appropriately. This is because some of the content may perceived in positive side and some may perceived in different ways. For example if a company design its website in one language in Bahasa Melayu, the company may loss it potential customer which do not know the Malay language.

5. Taxation

- This is one of the most exciting issues in e-commerce especially the sales tax. In traditional brick-mortar businesses, a company is required to comply with the government taxation requirements law. However, in e-commerce tax collection and compliance is not easy to be monitored and complied.

This is because e-commerce provides not only a company that operates in local area such Malaysia, but the customer also can reach a company that is operated outside Malaysia. The rule of taxation are differs between one country to another. Therefore, it is very difficult to impose certain pre-defined tax rule to an e-commerce operator.


In order to achieve optimum result in e-commerce, there are several factors that need to be considered by a company while choosing a host for their e-commerce site. Some of the factors are:

1. Reliability of host provider

- The reliability of the provider covers proven track record of the provider and how reliable the hosting provided by the company. Company such as Godaddy.com and e-hosting.com.my are among hosting provider that has proven record in the market. The reliability of the provider also consist the platform used by the provider to host our website. Platform such active server page (ASP) and content management system (CMS) are among well known platform used by the provider. This platform plays important role because some of the hosting platform may not support security for secured transaction for the website such as PayPal and e-money.

2. Customer service and technical support

- This also is one of the factors that need to consider by a company before deciding to choose which company to provide the hosting. This is because the whole business process in e-commerce is totally depending on the website. Problem such server downtime may occur at anytime for e-commerce business. Therefore, providers with reliable 24hours troubleshoot support and knowledgeable support staff can mitigate the loss that may occurred during system down. If the company is new to e-commerce, provider with excellent technical support should be the main deciding factor.

3. Cost

- There are many providers that provide the hosting services. The prices are vary depend on the package offered by the provider. However, there are lot packages offered by the provider. One must consider several factors against the cost that will be charged by then. Factor like the bandwidth size, basic system requirements, domain name and space size are among the factors that need to be considered. A reliable technical support also is among the main factors to be considered in subscribing to the hosting service. This can ensure that the company can run smoothly.

4. Stability of the provider

- Stability refers to the longevity if the provider. Well-known provider such as Godaddy.com and Yahoo Business are among the most popular and stable hosting provider. By having a stable and continuous provider, it can help the company to survive in e-commerce business. This is because some unknown or less popular provider may create trouble to the website whereby some customer may not able to the e-commerce site.

E-commerce has significantly in the supply and value chains in today’s business. Supply chains are the flow of materials, information, money and services from raw materials suppliers to the production until it’s reached the end customer. There are some strengths and weaknesses in the e-commerce supply. Some of the strengths are:

1. Direct access to material supplier

- Some e-commerce companies have designated system that may triggered if the raw materials are running at low stock. This can help the company to reorder the raw material at the right time and at the right quantity. This can support the Just In Time production concept in order to save the production cost such as inventory cost.

2. Cheaper cost of raw materials

- E-commerce eliminates the middlemen role in dealing with the raw materials suppliers. By eliminating the middlemen role, the cost of purchasing raw material can be reduced significantly. This process is known as disintermediation. For example is Air Asia whereby instead the traditional way of booking air tickets that are done by the travelling agencies, now the passenger can book their own air ticket via Air Asia website.

3. Cheaper marketing and promotions cost

- By having e-commerce, the company can reduced their market and promotions cost since customers are directly linked with the company via the website. E-commerce also allows customization of the product according the customer need. Dell Computers is an example of company that runs on the e-commerce website and have the high customization feature to its customer. Customer may design their own laptops or PCs specification according to their needs.

4. Increase productivity, reduce expenses and save time

- Some e-commerce companies such as Marshall Industries (www.marshall.com) manage to reduce their operation cost by using the online supply chain management program. This program is combined with data warehousing solutions that provides the company with appropriate information for repurchasing activities. This concept helps in increasing the company’s productivities.

Although, e-commerce provides significant strength to the company supply value chain, it’s also contributes to some weaknesses. Some weaknesses that have been identified are:

1. Ineffective supply chain management

- In e-commerce, the critical success factor in conducting business is how well both parties transacted through the internet. The supply chain management in e-commerce maybe ineffective if the counter party failed to utilised the benefits of the e-commerce. This is because not all party involves in the e-commerce are IT literates. All the parties in the supply chain must know how the processes are in optimizing the e-commerce in the supply chain management.

2. Customer confidence

- Although e-commerce provides ease to the both seller and buyer, its also may creates lost of customers’ confidence. For example, if the business allows high involvement of customer in customizing their laptop or PCs purchasing, the customer may try to customize some products which is not be working to the product purchased. However, during the customization the, the system used as interaction between the buyer and seller allow the customization, it may makes the customer lost of confidence towards the customer product. The reliability of the product maybe jeopardize by the customer that lead to negative effect to the company’s name.


Question 2

Encryption is mathematical procedure that scrambles data so that it is extremely difficult for any other than authorized recipients to recover the original message. Nowadays, often we heard about cyber attacks such as spamming, hacking, phishing and ip spoofing. As an industries that utilising the network infrastructures, e-commerce is vulnerable to these attacks. Almost all e-commerce transaction involves cash transaction such as online payment via electronic and via credit card.

Therefore, all of these transactions must be protected so that it can minimize loss for both client and the customer. As the environment in e-commerce is so vulnerable to the hackers that may intercept during the transaction being processed, encryption is the best method to be used. Without encryption, e-commerce is impossible to a success. When a customer shop online or do some internet banking transaction, encryption makes the payment or banking transaction safe.

The encryption will scrambles the data sent by the customer during making the payment so that the data if intercepted by unauthorised party, it cannot be read by the party. The data sent can only be read by the intended recipient. This data can only be read after the decryption process is done by the intended recipient.

Encryption does not only protect the transaction details but also it protects the data privacy during it being transmitted. Nowadays, a lot of e-commerce companies use the encryption techniques in order to make the online transaction safe. One of the most famous encryption technique used is the SSL certificates provide by VeriSign. VeriSign is the leading Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Certificate Authority enabling secure e-commerce, communications, and interactions for Web sites, intranets, and extranets. Choose the most trusted mark on the Internet and enable the strongest SSL encryption available to every site visitor.

Companies such as Dell and Air Asia where most of the transactions are done via electronic used the encryption technique. Internet banking transactions such as Maybank2u and CIMBClicks are also use the same technique. However, some additional security function such as Transaction Authorisation Code (TAC) is used together with the encryption of data. This will give further protection on the data.

E-commerce is one of fastest technology growing in today’s world. Almost everyday a new e-commerce entity merged in the world. Lots of data are transmitted via internet daily. Most of the data transmitted are very confidential and can cause great loss to the industry if held by unauthorised party. Therefore security feature such as encryption plays vital role in order to ensure that data is safe during the transmission.

Although encryption is used to protect the data in e-commerce environment, hacking activities will never stops. Additional security features such TAC, digital certificates and digital signature are example of security add-ons that are widely used in e-commerce environment.

One of e-commerce scope is the electronic data interchange (EDI). EDI is the inter-organization exchange of documents in standardized electronic form directly between computer applications. It is a computer-to-computer based transfer of business information. The information exchange could be the transaction data, order acknowledgement, shipping information and other information pertaining to business transaction.

Compared to the traditional data exchange, EDI is paperless based of information exchange. In the traditional data exchange, most of information is shared or exchanged in black and white format. However, in EDI the information share or exchange are directly shown to the recipient computer system.

The primary goal of EDI is to make the business communication easy, fast and cheap. This is because by using EDI, the information needed is set in pre-format design and it is paperless. Compared to the traditional way, most of the information is kept in hardcopy format and the presentation of the data maybe varies depending to the recipient request.

EDI has been used since the early 1970s’. Most of big companies such as AT&T and IBM used dedicated telephone line to carry the EDI. The other goal of EDI is to reduce the amount of data capture. Only important data will be share and exchange between two parties. Compare to the traditional way, some unnecessary data also included in the information given to the recipient.

EDI allow faster data capturing compared to the traditional data exchange. This is because some of the information is directly key-in to the EDI system and is ready to be exchanged by the counter party. For example in lelong.com.my, once the buyer key-in the delivery address after making the payment to the buyer, the address keyed-in is automated share with the courier provider agent appointed by the seller. Comparing to the traditional way, the delivery process may promotes delay and waste of time.

The traditional of data exchange may involve a lot of handling cost. Handling cost such as data storing and paper may affect the company’s operating cost. By using EDI, these handling costs can be reduced significantly. This it due to that all data capture and exchanged are made through a computer. It also save space for the company as the traditional way may require large space for filing and data storage.

The risk of lost of data also can be minimised by using the EDI. This is because most of the data kept in EDI technique can be save and back up easily since all the data is kept in softcopy format. The data kept in traditional way are kept in hardcopy format which is very difficult to make a back up copy. EDI also permits data exchange regardless of the counter party location. The sender maybe in Malaysia whiles the recipient maybe in Italy. With EDI, the information can be exchange easily and can be done in a short period. The sender and the recipient only need an internet line to be connected to each other, Comparing to the traditional way, the business information may takes a while to arrive to the recipient.

E-commerce is one of the virtual organization members. Virtual organization is a set of legal entity that utilised and communicates through the computer network. The virtual organizations solely use telecommunication as main hub of communication among the members. All the organization goals are shared among the members through communication. Most of the interaction is done via computer network and rarely the team member met face to face.

According to Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary (2003), the word of virtual means almost or nearly to the thing described. Virtual can be seen as a mirror or a fake version of something that we described. A virtual organization is a mirror of an organization that can be seen at most of place in the world. However, the different between virtual and normal organization is the virtual is more to non brick-mortar type of organization that the member of the virtual organization may not necessarily working under the same roof. The normal operating organization requires the team members to work under the same roof and most of the time they have a face-to-face interaction.


References

  1. http://wiki.media-culture.org.au/index.php/ECommerce_-_Legal_and_Ethical_Issues

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org

  1. Steve Fall et. al (2007). Open University Malaysia: CBEC 1103: Elements of E-Commerce. Kuala Lumpur. Meteor Doc Sdn Bhd

  1. Efraim Turban & David King (2003). Introduction to E-Commerce – International Edition. New Jersey. Pearson Education Ltd

  1. Elias Awad (2002). Electronic Commerce : From Vision to Fulfillment. New Jersey. Pearson Education Ltd

  1. http://www.godaddy.com

  1. http://www.e-hosting.com.my

  1. http://www.lelong.com.my

  1. http://www.marshall.com

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CBSM4203- Sistem Maklumat Pengurusan

Soalan 1

a. Rajah kitaran pemprosesan urusniaga

Sistem pemprosesan urusniaga atau transaksi ialah satu sistem yang memproses data-data yang diperolehi hasil daripada sesuatu transaksi atau urusniaga di dalam sebuah perniagaan. Ia mempunyai 3 fungsi utama iaitu:

1. Simpan kira – untuk menyimpan semua rekod transaksi organisasi dengan tepat;

2. Penjanaan dokumen – pengeluaran dokumen perniagaan seperti invois, penyata bulanan dan sebagainya;

3. Laporan kawalan – laporan yang dijanakan hasil dari operasi pemprosesan transaksi yang bertujuan untuk mengawal operasi organisasi.

Terdapat 5 langkah di dalam sistem pemprosesan urusniaga ini. Sila lihat rajah dan penerangan dibawah mengenai setiap langkah tersebut.

2. Pemprosesan urusniaga

4. Penjanaan laporan

5. Proses pertanyaan

1. Kemasukan data

3. Proses fail & pengkalan data

Kitaran Pemprosesan Urusniaga

  1. Kemasukan Data – proses ini melibatkan pengumpulan, perekodan dan penyuntingan semua data yang diperoleh dari setiap transaksi. Data-data ini disediakan di dalam format yang dikehendaki oleh syarikat. Data-data ini boleh didapati dengan kemasukan rekod oleh kakitangan syarikat tersebut ataupun data ini dimasukkan oleh pelanggan sekiranya system pemprosesan urusniaga ini dijalankan secara dalam talian. Data seperti jumlah jualan, nama pelanggan dan butiran urusniaga amat penting kerana ia dapat membantu syarikat untuk membuat ramalan perniagaan yang lebih buat.

  1. Pemprosesan Urusniaga – setelah proses kemasukan data selesai, data yang dimasukkan akan diproses. Proses ini dikenali sebagai proses urusniaga. Data akan diproses dengan melakukan perubahan terhadap kandungan data yang dimasukkan. Terdapat dua cara pemprosesan urusniaga iaitu pemprosesan secara berkelompok iaitu data-data akan dikumpul untuk satu tempoh tertentu dan kemudiannya ia akan diproses secara berkala. Sebagai contoh ialah sistem deposit cek di mana cek-cek yang dimasukkan ke dalam mesin hanya akan diproses dalam waktu tertentu sahaja. Satu cara pemprosesan urusniaga ialah secara dalam talian, di mana rekod akan dikemaskini secara terus apabila pengguna memasukkan data yang berkaitan. Sebagai contoh ialah mesin ATM di mana sekiranya pengguna mengeluarkan wang dari mesin ia akan mengemaskini baki akaun pengguna terbabit secara terus.

  1. Proses Fail & Pengkalan Data – proses ini merujuk kepada proses untuk menyelenggara fail-fail yang ada di dalam pengkalan data. Fail-fail perlu dikemaskini sekiranya berlaku pemprosesan urusniaga supaya rekod yang ada adalah rekod yang terbaru dan telah dikemaskini. Kegagalan untuk menyelenggara fail di dalam pengkalan data akan menyebabkan rekod-rekod yang ada tidak relevan untuk digunakan. Sekiranya sesebuah syarikat menggunakan pemprosesan urusniaga secara dalam talian, proses ini adalah kritikal dan amat penting. Ini kerana kegagalan sesebuah sistem untuk mengemaskini data secara terus-menerus akan menyebabkan kesilapan data berlaku. Proses ini berhubungan secara dua hala dengan pemprosesan urusniaga. Ini kerana di dalam pemprosesan urusniaga, pengguna akan mencapai rekod yang berada di dalam pengkalan data dan begitu juga sebaliknya di mana setiap pemprosesan urusniaga selesai, data akan dikemaskinikan bagi setiap rekod yang terlibat.

  1. Penjanaan Laporan – semua data yang telah disimpan dan diproses di dalam pengkalan data boleh dicapai semula melalui proses ini. Penjanaan laporan ini penting kerana pengguna boleh mendapatkan segala maklumat yang dikehendaki dalam bentuk yang diingini. Maklumat yang dihasilkan pula ialah maklumat yang telah diproses hasil dari pengumpulan data bagi semua transaksi yang berlaku. Laporan ini juga merupakan ringkasan segala transaksi yang telah berlaku di dalam organisasi tersebut. Melalui laporan ini juga, mekanisme kawalan bagi mengawal operasi transaksi syarikat juga dapat dibangunkan. Sebagai contoh laporan jualan produk syarikat di dapati menurun pada bulan lepas berbanding bulan sebelumnya, pihak pengurusan boleh merancang bagaimana untuk meningkatkan jualan produk syarikat pada bulan akan datang. Mekanisme kawalan seperti kuota jualan yang perlu dicapai adalah satu contoh bagaimana untuk meningkatkan lagi jualan syarikat. Contoh dokumen yang dapat dijanakan melalui proses ini ialah penyata perakaunan, senarai kawalan serta laporan urusniaga.

  1. Proses Pertanyaan – proses ini merupakan proses interaksi antara pengguna dengan pemprosesan urusniaga. Sistem pemprosesan urusniaga berupaya untuk memberi kebenaran kepada pengguna yang terlibat untuk membuat pertanyaan. Setiap pertanyaan yang dibuat akan direspon mengikut pertanyaan yang dibuat oleh pengguna. Setiap respon yang diterima adalah di dalam bentuk paparan skrin ataupun dalam bentuk cetakan. Contoh pertanyaan yang boleh dibuat oleh pengguna ialah pertanyaan mengenai jantina paling ramai membeli wain keluaran syarikat.


b. Aplikasi sistem pemprosesan urusniaga bagi Syarikat LeeAnne Vineyards

Terdapat beberapa fungsi aplikasi sistem pemprosesan urusniaga yang didapati sesuai untuk dibangunkan bagi kegunaan Syarikat Leeanne Vineyards. Antara fungsi aplikasi yang boleh dibangunkan ialah:

  1. Aplikasi Inventori – sebagai sebuah pengeluar wain, aplikasi inventori amat penting. Ini kerana melalui aplikasi ini pihak pengurusan syarikat dapat memastikan tahap stok di dalam inventori syarikat diselenggara dengan baik. Ia dapat mengelakkan masalah yang timbul seperti kekurangan bahan mentah semasa proses pengeluaran wain dilakukan. Sekiranya inventori gagal diselenggara dengan baik maka pengeluaran dan pendapatan syarikat akan terjejas. Melalui aplikasi ini juga syarikat dapat memastikan stok bagi setiap produk yang siap untuk dijual sentiasa berada di dalam kuantiti yang mencukupi bagi memenuhi permintaan dari pelanggan.

  1. Aplikasi Tempahan Pesanan – di dalam usaha untuk meluaskan perniagaan di dalam penjualan wain, aplikasi ini berguna bagi syarikat LeeAnne Vineyards. Ini kerana melalui aplikasi ini, para pelanggan dapat membuat tempahan melalui berbagai cara selain dari datang ke kedai untuk membeli atau membuat tempahan wain. Aplikasi ini membenarkan pelanggan untuk membuat tempahan melalui telefon, faks dan sebagainya. Segala butiran pesanan dan tempahan akan direkod dan disimpan di dalam sebuah pengkalan data. Dengan cara ini juga, syarikat LeeAnne Vineyards dapat mengetahui jika seseorang pelanggan itu sama ada mereka adalah pelanggan baru atau pelanggan ulangan.

  1. Aplikasi Penghantaran – aplikasi ini sesuai dibangunkan bagi menyokong aplikasi tempahan pesanan. Setiap tempahan dibuat akan diproseskan dan produk yang dihasilkan akan disertakan dengan arahan penghantaran produk kepada pembeli. Aplikasi ini juga memudahkan syarikat bagi membuat semakan inventori. Ini disebabkan melalui aplikasi ini setiap aktiviti penghantaran setiap produk akan direkodkan dan dikemaskinikan bersama dengan aplikasi inventori.

  1. Aplikasi Penerimaan – sebagai sebuah syarikat pengeluar wain, fungsi aplikasi ini adalah penting kerana fungsi ini membantu syarikat di dalam menentusahkan produk atau bahan mentah yang dipesan diperolehi dalam kuantiti yang dikehendaki. Aplikasi ini juga berupaya membantu syarikat untuk menolak produk yang dihantar oleh pembekal sekiranya ia tidak menepati piawaian yang ditetapkan. Sebagai pengeluar wain yang secara tidak langsung terlibat di dalam industri makanan, soal kualiti bahan mentah tidak boleh dikompromi kerana sekiranya bahan mentah seperti anggur yang diterima adalah rosak, ia akan menyebabkan reputasi syarikat terjejas.

  1. Aplikasi Pembelian – Syarikat LeeAnne Vineyards mempunyai banyak jabatan yang terlibat di dalam pembuatan wain. Jabatan-jabatan seperti kewangan, pengeluaran, pemasaran dan pembungkusan adalah contoh jabatan yang ada di dalam syarikat ini. Bagi memastikan operasi syarikat tidak terjejas akibat kekurangan stok bahan mentah, aplikasi pembelian ini amat penting. Ini kerana melalui aplikasi ini semua permintaan untuk belian akan dibuat melalui aplikasi ini. Ia juga akan melakukan proses pemilihan pembekal dan seterusnya menghasilkan pesanan kepada pembekal. Selepas pembelian dilakukan dan produk diterima, aplikasi ini berfungsi untuk mengemaskini senarai pembelian yang sudah ataupun belum dibuat.

  1. Aplikasi Gaji – aplikasi ini merupakan aplikasi yang amat penting bagi memastikan operasi syarikat berjalan dengan lancar. Ini kerana melalui aplikasi ini, pembayaran gaji staf akan diproses. Kadar percukaian dan kemudahan seperti insurans, KWSP pekerja juga diproses melalui aplikasi ini. Rekod mengenai para pekerja yang bekerja dengan syarikat juga akan diproses melalui aplikasi ini. Kegagalan aplikasi ini berfungsi dengan sempurna akan menyebabkan rasa ketidakpuashatian timbul di kalangan pekerja. Sekiranya masalah ini timbul maka produktiviti pekerja akan terjejas.


c. Kelebihan Menggunakan Sistem Maklumat Berkomputer

Terdapat beberapa kelebihan yang akan didapati oleh Syarikat LeeAnne Vineyards sekiranya syarikat ini menggunakan sistem maklumat berkomputer. Antara kelebihan-kelebihan tersebut ialah:

  1. Penjimatan kos operasi – dengan menggunakan sistem maklumat berkomputer syarikat dapat menjimatkan kos operasinya. Ia disebabkan melalui sistem berkomputer, penggunaan seperti kertas dan ruang pejabat dapat dikurangkan dengan banyak. Sebagai contoh ratusan maklumat mengenai pelanggan, pembekal, pekerja dan pengedar hanya perlu disimpan di dalam sebuah komputer berbanding sekiranya syarikat menggunakan sistem maklumat manual di mana sudah tentu ia akan menggunakan satu bilik fail yang besar. Rekod-rekod juga disimpan dalam bentuk ‘softcopy’ ini menjimatkan penggunaan kertas yang dapat membantu syarikat untuk mengurangkan kos operasi.

  1. Menjimatkan masa – melalui sistem maklumat berkomputer ini juga, ia dapat menjimatkan masa terutama dalam carian maklumat. Maklumat mengenai pembekal mahupun pelanggan dari dicapai dengan mudah dan pantas. Di dalam persaingan dunia perniagaan hari ini, sesebuah syarikat itu perlu pantas dan cepat di dalam mendapatkan maklumat. Kegagalan syarikat untuk bertindak pantas secara tidak langsung akan menyebabkan syarikat itu kurang berdaya saing.

  1. Memudahkan pelanggan – dengan penggunaan sistem maklumat berkomputer, para pelanggan juga akan berasa mudah berurusan dengan syarikat terutama ketika membuat pesanan. Sekiranya dahulu pelanggan dikehendaki datang untuk membeli wain dan sebagainya, dengan sistem maklumat berkomputer pelanggan boleh melihat dan seterusnya membeli produk syarikat secara dalam talian. Ia secara tidak langsung memudahkan pelanggan serta menjimatkan masa bagi pelanggan dan syarikat di dalam melakukan urusniaga jual beli.

  1. Mengurangkan risiko – penggunaan sistem maklumat berkomputer ini dapat meminimakan risiko kepada syarikat. Risiko yang dimaksudkan ialah kehilangan maklumat mengenai pembekal, pelanggan dan pekerja yang merupakan asset paling bernilai bagi sesebuah syarikat. Ini kerana dengan menggunakan sistem maklumat berkomputer ini, syarikat berupaya untuk membuat salinan ‘back-up’ bagi semua maklumat yang ada di dalam syarikat. Berbanding sekiranya syarikat menggunakan sistem maklumat secara manual adalah mustahil bagi syarikat untuk menyediakan salinan ‘back-up’ bagi setiap dokumen dan maklumat yang disimpan di dalam bilik fail. Sekiranya berlaku kejadian seperti kebakaran dan sebagainya sudah tentu maklumat-maklumat ini tidak dapat diselamatkan.

  1. Meningkatkan daya saing dan produktiviti syarikat – tidak dinafikan pada hari ini sistem maklumat berkomputer memainkan peranan yang amat penting dan kritikal di dalam sesebuah perniagaan. Sistem maklumat berkomputer ini juga dapat membantu meningkatkan daya saing syarikat. Ini kerana melalui sistem ini syarikat dapat bertindak dan membuat keputusan perniagaan dengan cepat dan tepat. Ia disebabkan capaian kepada maklumat-maklumat yang diperlukan adalah cepat berbanding kaedah manual yang sering digunakan oleh syarikat-syarikat lain. Ia secara tidak langsung menyumbang kepada peningkatan produktiviti syarikat.


Soalan 2

a. Perbezaan struktur organisasi fungsian dan struktur organisasi matriks

Rajah di atas merupakan contoh rajah organisasi fungsian. Organisasi jenis ini banyak digunakan di dalam badan-badan kerajaan di mana kebanyakan kakitangan dikumpulkan mengikut kemahiran fungsian masing-masing. Organisasi ini adalah bersifat rigid di mana pembuatan keputusan adalah secara berpusat. Sebagai contoh sebarang keputusan mengenai pengeluaran akan dirujuk kepada Naib Presiden Pengeluaran sebelum ia dimaklumkan kepada Presiden. Organisasi jenis ini dilihat mempunyai hierarki kuasa yang tinggi. Walaubagaimanapun, melalui organisasi fungsian ini pengagihan sumber dan tugasan mudah dilakukan. Pembuatan keputusan dan penyelesaian masalah melalui struktur ini adalah lebih berkesan kerana pembuatan keputusan dibuat secara berpusat. Contoh organisasi yang menggunakan struktur organisasi seperti ialah seperti badan kerajaan seperti Bank Negara Malaysia serta syarikat swasta terutama sector perbankan seperti Maybank.


Rajah di atas merupakan contoh struktur organisasi matriks. Organisasi matriks adalah satu struktur organisasi di mana semua projek-projek yang bersifat kekal atau sementara memerlukan pengurus projek berkongsi autoriti dengan pengurus fungsian organisasi. Struktur ini melihatkan para pengurus projek bekerjasama dengan ahli-ahli dari jabatan lain di dalam menjayakan sesebuah projek. Ini kerana kebanyakan projek seperti penjenamaan semula syarikat merupakan projek yang bersifat sementara. Tugas utama pengarah/pengurus projek ini adalah untuk mendapatkan maklumat mengenai projek, menyelia tugasan dalam projek dan menyelesaikan konflik di kalangan ahli-projek yang terdiri dari jabatan yang berlainan.

Struktur organisasi ini amat sesuai bagi organisasi yang memerlukan fleksibiliti dan inginkan perubahan yang pantas terhadap persekitaran organisasi. Melalui struktur jenis ini juga, kakitangan didapati mendapat lebih kepuasan bekerja terutara di dalam pasukan projek mereka. Contoh organisasi seperti ini ialah seperti Telekom Malaysia, DiGi Berhad dan Malaysia Airlines System yang mana syarikat-syarikat ini telah melakukan penjenamaan semula syarikat dan penstrukturan syarikat dengan jayanya.


b. Bagaimana struktur organisasi matriks mampu membantu sesebuah organisasi

Melalui organisasi matriks ini, sesebuah organisasi dapat menguruskan sesebuah projek dengan lebih cekap dan efektif. Ia disebabkan organisasi matriks ini adalah seperti satu organisasi silang fungsian di mana ahli-ahli di dalam sesebuat projek itu datang dari berlainan latar belakang dan kepakaran. Struktur ini juga dilihat meningkatkan lagi komunikasi di antara kakitangan dan juga para pengurus. Ini kerana sesebuah projek itu saling memerlukan input dan maklumat dari ahli-ahlinya yang terdiri dari berlainan latar belakang.

Kaedah struktur ini juga merupakan kaedah paling berkesan di dalam menangani arus perubahan di persekitaran organisasi tersebut. Pada hari ini, persekitaran luar terutamanya seperti ekonomi, trend pembelian dan sosio-politik cepat berubah tanpa memberi tanda-tanda awal perubahan. Melalui struktur jenis ini segala maklumat yang diperlukan bagi menangani arus perubahan yang berlaku dapat diperoleh dengan mudah kerana ahli-ahli dalam pasukan projek itu terdiri dari latar belakang dan kepakaran yang berlainan. Input-input yang didapati juga meliputi hampir seluruh aspek yang diperlukan oleh organisasi. Sebagai contoh projek penjenamaan semula syarikat seperti di atas, ahli-ahli berkongsi pendapat dari segi perundangan sama ada penjenamaan syarikat yang dilakukan akan memberi impak perundagan kepada syarikat atau tidak dan juga input dari sumber manusia sama ada syarikat mempunyai tenaga kerja yang mahir dan cukup selari dengan objektif penjenamaan semula syarikat.

Dengan menggunakan struktur organisasi matriks in juga, ia membenarkan penggunaan sumber manusia secara lebih fleksibel. Ini disebabkan seseorang staff itu tidak hanya perlu melaporkan tugas terhadap satu pengurus sahaja berdasarkan fungsi staf tersebut. Ciri melaporkan tugas terhadap seorang pengurus ini hanya ada pada struktur organisasi fungsian. Organisasi matriks ini membenarkan staf untuk melaporkan tugas kepada beberapa pengurus sekiranya beliau terlibat di dalam beberapa projek yang diketuai oleh beberapa pengurus yang berlainan. Dengan cara ini, staf berkenaan akan mendapat pendedahan kerja yang lebih terbuka dan luas kerana setiap pengurus mempunyai gaya pengurusan yang tersendiri. Staf berkenaan juga dapat menggunakan segala kebolehan yang ada selain dari kepakaran fungsian yang ada di dalam memastikan objektif sesebuah projek itu tercapai dengan jayanya.


Rujukan

1. Prof. Dr. Ansary Ahmed et. al (2007). Open University Malaysia: CBMS 4203: Sistem Maklumat Pengurusan. Kuala Lumpur. Meteor Doc Sdn Bhd.

2. Kathryn M. Bartol & David C. Martin (1998). Management. New York. Iriwin McGraw-Hill

3. Stephen P. Robbins; penterjemah Abdul Razak Ibrahim & Ainin Sulaiman (2000). Gelagat Organisasi Edisi Kelapan. Kuala Lumpur. Pearson Education Asia Ptd. Ltd.

4. Ebi Shahrin Sulaiman et. Al (2003). Prinsip Pengurusan. Kuala Lumpur. McGraw-Hill

5. Kenneth C & Jane P. Laudon (2006). Ninth Edition: Management Information Systems – Managing The Digital Firm. New Jersey, USA. Pearson Education Inc

6. Prof. Dr. Ansary Ahmed et. al (2007). Open University Malaysia: BBGO 4103: Gelagat Organisasi. Kuala Lumpur. Meteor Doc Sdn Bhd.

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